Modularization refers to the existence of numerous players in a decentralized value chain, each using digital technology to provide a specialized service that meets the needs of other value-chain players or end-customers. In financial services, modularization represents an alternative to the vertically integrated market structure long dominated by large banks and other institutions.

Financial institutions (FIs) continue to expect cybersecurity and data disputes in the coming year, along with ESG disputes. We will see growth in climate-related litigation against financial institutions from NGOs and activist shareholders. Until recently, claims have focused on the disclosure of climate-related information. However, the trend is now moving to scrutiny of what prudent financial management means. For example, what fiduciary duties are owed when acting as a financial advisor in investment planning or M&A transactions?